Acanthamoeba has been isolated before from seawater, ocean sediment, chlorinated swimming pools (which can contain up to 104 amoebae per litre as they are resistant to chlorine) and a variety of other types of water as well as from sewage outfalls. In addition, a relationship between the presence of Acanthamoeba and faecal indicator bacteria has been found in samples of ocean sediment. Interestingly, isolates of Acanthamoeba genotype T4, associated with keratitis in humans, have been cultured recently from the organs of freshwater fish. A. griffini, A. culbertsoni, and A. royreba have also been isolated from fish but their genotype, while not performed on these particular isolates, is likely to be T3 (occasional cause of keratitis), probably T10 (nonkeratitis) and T4 if the isolate was similar to A. royreba (Oak Ridge type-strain), respectively. Chung et al identified by riboprinting the ‘Chang’ strain of A. castellanii (T4 equivalent) from fresh water and found it closely related to A. hatchetti (T11 equivalent) isolated from ocean sediments (salt water); both strains were expected to be pathogenic in animal models. The relationship between Acanthamoeba genotype T4 causing keratitis in humans and T4 isolates from organs of fishes, where its role in surviving without causing disease is that of a protozoon parasite, is intriguing.
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Turner’s offensive output to date has been incredible, on par with great hitters like Carlos Gonzalez and Mookie Betts. It seems impossible that he can continue to hit like one of the three or four best offensive shortstops in baseball, but Turner has defied expectations and demonstrated improvement at every turn. If his contact gains are real, he could well establish himself as an offensive force for years to come.
Swimming pools and other water sources can be contaminated with microorganisms that can cause serious eye infections. For example, , caused by a common single-celled organism (amoeba) that can be present even in chlorinated swimming pools, is a painful waterborne infection that can severely damage the front surface of the eye, causing scarring and vision loss that could require a .