Residents of Qidong, People’s Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part from consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins. Chlorophyllin, a mixture of semisynthetic, water-soluble derivatives of chlorophyll that is used as a food colorant and over-the-counter medicine, has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of aflatoxin hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models by blocking carcinogen bioavailability. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial, we tested whether chlorophyllin could alter the disposition of aflatoxin. One hundred and eighty healthy adults from Qidong were randomly assigned to ingest 100 mg of chlorophyllin or a placebo three times a day for 4 months. The primary endpoint was modulation of levels of aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine adducts in urine samples collected 3 months into the intervention measured by using sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. This aflatoxin-DNA adduct excretion product serves as a biomarker of the biologically effective dose of aflatoxin, and elevated levels are associated with increased risk of liver cancer. Adherence to the study protocol was outstanding, and no adverse events were reported. Aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine could be detected in 105 of 169 available samples. Chlorophyllin consumption at each meal led to an overall 55% reduction (P = 0.036) in median urinary levels of this aflatoxin biomarker compared with those taking placebo. Thus, prophylactic interventions with chlorophyllin or supplementation of diets with foods rich in chlorophylls may represent practical means to prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma or other environmentally induced cancers.
Reports on an inverse relationship between the consumption of fresh vegetables and human gastrointestinal cancer have been followed by screening for the protective activity of a large number of plant extracts, including leafy vegetables. Chlorophyll is ubiquitous in all green plant parts. Chlorophyllins are derivatives of chlorophyll in which the central magnesium atom is replaced by other metals, such as cobalt, copper or iron. An attempt has been made in this article to review the relative efficacy of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin in modifying the genotoxic effects of various known toxicants.
Chlorophyllin (CHL) is a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll (Chl) in which magnesium has been replaced with copper and the phytol chains lost. CHL has been safely used in human medicine (e.g. Derifil, primarily to control body odor in geriatric patients) for many years () and is available as a dietary supplement. Chl is present in our diet in green, leafy vegetables, reaching levels of 5.7% in spinach (). Although the potential for CHL and Chl to act as antimutagens in vitro had been previously published (), the cancer chemopreventive properties of CHL and Chl in vivo were first demonstrated in the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rainbow trout model (,,,,,) and later in a rodent model (). Physical complexation with the carcinogen reduces bioavailability to target organs (,), whereas extended preloading with dietary CHL prior to a single carcinogenic treatment with AFB1 is ineffective (). This mechanism should be essentially species independent and, therefore, effective in humans. Indeed, in a human clinical intervention trial in Qidong, China, where dietary AFB1 exposure is a serous concern (), a dose of 100–300 mg of CHL, given with meals, for only 3 months was effective at reducing the urinary biomarker of AFB1-dependent DNA adduction by more than half (). CHL costs pennies a day with no significant side effects being reported, making it extremely attractive for intervention due to the high rate of compliance.
Chlorophyll is the pigment that gives plants and algae their green color. Plants use chlorophyll to trap light needed for photosynthesis . The basic structure of chlorophyll is a porphyrin ring similar to that of in , although the central atom in chlorophyll is magnesium instead of iron. The long hydrocarbon (phytol) tail attached to the porphyrin ring makes chlorophyll fat-soluble and insoluble in water. Two different types of chlorophyll (chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) are found in plants (Figure 1). The small difference in one of the side chains allows each type of chlorophyll to absorb light at slightly different wavelengths. Chlorophyllin is a semi-synthetic mixture of sodium copper salts derived from chlorophyll . During the synthesis of chlorophyllin, the magnesium atom at the center of the ring is replaced with copper and the phytol tail is lost. Unlike natural chlorophyll, chlorophyllin is water-soluble. Although the content of different chlorophyllin mixtures may vary, two compounds commonly found in commercial chlorophyllin mixtures are trisodium copper chlorin e6 and disodium copper chlorin e4 (Figure 2).
|Nullo Oral Deodorant Tablets - 60 TabletsThe active ingredient in Nullo Oral Deodorant Tablets, Chlorophyllin Copper complex, is safe for oral use and is effective in helping reduce odors associated with ostomies and incontinence.|
|Nullo Oral Deodorant Tablets - 135 TabletsThe active ingredient in Nullo Oral Deodorant Tablets, Chlorophyllin Copper complex, is safe for oral use and is effective in helping reduce odors associated with ostomies and incontinence.|
|Devrom Oral Deodorant TabletsA chewable tablet (Bismuth Subgallate 200 mg.) that may be swallowed whole. Devrom Oral Deodorant Tablets have won wide popularity among ostomates as a highly effective internal deodorant. 90 Tablets.|
|Chlorofresh Oral Deodorant Capsules.Each soft gelatin capsule contains 50 mg. of natural chlorophyll, and can be taken orally or used in the appliance. Chlorofresh Oral Deodorant Capsules is fast dissolving and water soluble, it works safely and effectively to reduce odors originating in the digestive tract. 90 Capsules.|
|Derifil Chlorophyl Oral DeodorantDerifil 100 mg. chlorophyllin tablet can be taken orally or can also be used in the appliance. Derifil Chlorophyl Oral Deodorant is ideal for people with ostomies or incontinence. 100 tablets.|
Sorry, this item is no longer available. For a suggested replacement, Nullo Oral Deodorant Tablets, see above.